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'History of Arts/19C'에 해당되는 글 31건

  1. 2007.11.13 art nouveau
  2. 2007.11.12 19C- 자연주의
  3. 2007.11.12 19 -낭만주의(터너) (1)
  4. 2007.11.11 19C- 신고전주의 (1)
  5. 2007.10.17 Hide and Seek
  6. 2007.10.04 William Bouguereau(1825~1905)
  7. 2007.07.05 밀레 자연주의
  8. 2007.07.04 Gustave Caillebotte 인상주의
  9. 2007.07.04 seurat georges 신인상주의
  10. 2007.06.27 모네~빛 인상주의

art nouveau

History of Arts/19C 2007.11.13 13:53 |
Alphonse Mucha(1860 - 1939)

Alphonse (Alfons) Mucha (1860-1939) was a prolific Moravian painter of the late 19th and early 20th Centuries and a key figure in the Art Nouveau movement. His style of painting influenced an entire generation of painters, graphic artists, draughtsmen and designers and in the minds of many, his work epitomizes the Art Nouveau. He himself came to resent his fame as an artist of the utilitarian, believing that true art should be elevated and epic.

Alfons Mucha was born on July 24, 1860, in the town of Ivancice, Moravia, then part of Austro-Hungary. His father was a court usher, and the family had but modest means. The future painter was raised in an atmosphere of strict Roman Catholicism, and this would later be reflected in the symbolism he employed in his work.

In 1871, Mucha joined the choir at St. Peter's Cathedral in Brno, where he was attending grammar school. He pursued singing seriously for a while, but was forced to abandon it after his voice started cracking in 1875. Instead, Mucha took up drawing lessons. Soon afterwards, he returned to Ivancice where, in the meanwhile, he found work as a municipal clerk.

In 1877, the young man applied to the Academy of Visual Arts in Prague, but was unable to gain admission. This did not discourage him, however, and he continued attending drawing classes. In 1879, he got a job in Vienna as an assistant in a firm that made stage sets, which is where he gained familiarity with theatre and the art of interior decoration. He was laid off in 1882, after a fire in the Burg Theater -- where the company had been working -- put the firm in difficult financial straits.

At this point, Mucha was feeling confident enough in his artistic skills to take up portrait painting. He moved back to Moravia, to the town of Mikulov, and it was there that he met Count Karl Khuen-Belassi, a local nobleman, who commissioned him to decorate the Emmahof Castle. The Count was so impressed with Mucha's work that he agreed to sponsor the artist's formal education. In 1884, after touring northern Italy and Austria with his patron, the painter entered the Academy of Visual Arts in Milan.

While at the Academy, Mucha became chairman of the Association of Slavic Painters, a first sure sign of his patriotic views.

In 1888, Mucha visited Paris for the first time. Paris, Europe's undisputed artistic capital of the time, was an essential step in the education of any "serious" painter. Mucha studied at the Academie Julian and the Academie Colarossi, focusing on academic historical painting. He was also involved with the Symbolists and artistic circles close to them.

Although he was a technically adept painter, academic art was long past its peak of popularity, and, as a means of supporting himself, Mucha began to draw illustrations for books and magazines.

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Jean-Baptiste-Camille Corot

(1796-1875)
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Orpheus Leading Eurydice from the Underworld. 1861. Oil on canvas. 113 x 137. The Museum of Fine Arts, Houston, TX, USA.
Jean-Baptiste-Camille Corot. A Morning. Dance of the Nymphs. Salon of 1850-51. 98 x 131 cm. Musée d'Orsay, Paris, France, Deposit from the Louvre.
Jean-Baptiste-Camille Corot. Landscape with a Lake. c. 1860-73. Oil on canvas. 53 x 65.5 cm. The Hermitage, St. Petersburg, Russia.
Jean-Baptiste-Camille Corot. Idylle. 1859. Oil on canvas. Musée des Beaux-Arts, Lille, France.
Jean-Baptiste-Camille Corot. Memory of Montefontaine / Souvenir de Montefontaine. Salon of 1864. Oil on canvas. 65 x 89 cm. Louvre, Paris, France
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Woman with a Pearl. Oil on canvas. 70 x 55 cm. Louvre, Paris, France.

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Agostina. 1866. Oil on canvas. 130 x 95 cm. The National Gallery of Art, Washington, DC, USA
Woman in Blue. 1874. Oil on canvas. 80x 50.5 cm. Louvre, Paris, France


Millet, Jean-François(1814-75)
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Les Glaneuses

1857 (40 Kb)

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Angelus, 1859

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Jean Louis André Théodore Géricault

(1791-1824) 
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Insane , 1821-24; Oil on canvas. Museum Van Schoone, Kunsten, Gent. (140 Kb)

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The Raft of the "Medusa". 1818-1819. Oil on canvas. 490  x 720 cm. Louvre, Paris, France.


The Derby at Epson. 1821. Oil on canvas. 92 x 123 cm. Louvre, Paris, France.


Delacroix,Eugène, in full FERDINAND- VICTOR-EUGENE DELACROIX (b. April 26, 1798, Charenton-Saint-Maurice, Fr.--d. Aug. 13, 1863, Paris),

Liberty leading the People (90 Kb); Painted on 28 July 1830, to commemorate the July Revolution that had just brought Louis-Philippe to the French throne; Louvre.

시민을 이끄는 자유. 는 사모트라케의 니케처럼 승리를 상징.
 프랑스 국기를 든 쟌다르크 같은 여인은 최후의 심판에서  오른팔을 높이 쳐든 예수의 몸짓을 연상

his painting, which is a sort of political poster, is meant to celebrate the day of 28 July 1830, when the people rose and dethroned the Bourbon king. Alexandre Dumas tells us that Delacroix's participation in the rebellious movements of July was mainly of a sentimental nature. Despite this, the painter, who had been a member of the National Guard, took pleasure in portraying himself in the figure on the left wearing the top-hat. Although the painting is filled with rhetoric, Delacroix's spirit is fully involved in its execution: in the outstretched figure of Liberty, in the bold attitudes of the people following herm contrasted with the lifeless figures of the dead heaped up in the foreground, in the heroic poses of the people fighting for liberty, there is without a doubt a sense of full participation on the part of the artist, which led Argan to define this canvas as the first political work of modern painting.

1789년 프랑스 대혁명이 일어나면서 왕정이 종식. 나폴레옹이 물러나고 부르봉 왕가가 복권하면서 시민들은 1830년 7월 혁명을 일으킨다. 국왕 샤를 10세가 시민참정권과 언론 출판권을 제약한다는 정책을 발표하자 시민들의 분노 폭발.
결국 1848년 2월 시민혁명으로...,


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The Death of Sardanapal
1827 (130 Kb); Oil on canvas, 392 x 496 cm; Musee du Louvre, Paris
<사르다나팔의 죽음> 기원전 9세기 앗시리아를 지배했던 왕
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Arabian Horses Fighting in a Stable
1860 (160 Kb); Oil on canvas, 64.5 x 81 cm; Musee d'Orsay, Paris

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Algerian Women in Their Apartments
1834 (170 Kb); Oil on canvas, (180 x 229 cm) (71 x 90 1/4"); Musee du Louvre, Paris
1832년 모로코 여행의 강렬한 인상. 유럽에서는 오래전에 사라진 고대의 세계가 그곳에서는 현재형으로 남아있기때문.  하렘은 여자들의 은밀한 규방을 의미. 

John Constable

(1776 - 1837)

Dedham Church and Vale.
1800. Pen, ink and watercolour on paper. Whitworth Art Gallery, University of Manchester, Manchester, UK.



'His Majesty's Ship "Victory", Capt. E. Harvey, in the Memorable Battle of Trafalgar between two French Ships of the Line'.
1806. Watercolour on paper. Victoria and Albert Museum, London, UK.
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Turner, John Mallord William (1775-1851). One of the finest landscape artists was J.M.W. Turner, whose work was exhibited when he was still a teenager. His entire life was devoted to his art. Unlike many artists of his era, he was successful throughout his career.

Joseph Mallord William Turner was born in London, England, on April 23, 1775. His father was a barber. His mother died when he was very young. The boy received little schooling. His father taught him how to read, but this was the extent of his education except for the study of art. By the age of 13 he was making drawings at home and exhibiting them in his father's shop window for sale.

Turner was 15 years old when he received a rare honor--one of his paintings was exhibited at the Royal Academy. By the time he was 18 he had his own studio. Before he was 20 print sellers were eagerly buying his drawings for reproduction.

He quickly achieved a fine reputation and was elected an associate of the Royal Academy. In 1802, when he was only 27, Turner became a full member. He then began traveling widely in Europe.

Venice was the inspiration of some of Turner's finest work. Wherever he visited he studied the effects of sea and sky in every kind of weather. His early training had been as a topographic draftsman. With the years, however, he developed a painting technique all his own. Instead of merely recording factually what he saw, Turner translated scenes into a light-filled expression of his own romantic feelings.

As he grew older Turner became an eccentric. Except for his father, with whom he lived for 30 years, he had no close friends. He allowed no one to watch him while he painted. He gave up attending the meetings of the academy. None of his acquaintances saw him for months at a time. Turner continued to travel but always alone. He still held exhibitions, but he usually refused to sell his paintings. When he was persuaded to sell one, he was dejected for days.

In 1850 he exhibited for the last time. One day Turner disappeared from his house. His housekeeper, after a search of many months, found him hiding in a house in Chelsea. He had been ill for a long time. He died the following day--Dec. 19, 1851.

Turner left a large fortune that he hoped would be used to support what he called "decaying artists." His collection of paintings was bequeathed to his country. At his request he was buried in St. Paul's Cathedral.

Although known for his oils, Turner is regarded as one of the founders of English watercolor landscape painting. Some of his most famous works are Calais Pier, Dido Building Carthage, Rain, Steam and Speed, Burial at Sea, and The Grand Canal, Venice.

빛으로 가득차있는 동적인 세계, 웅대한 자연의 가장 낭만적이고 숭고한 모습을 현란하고 화려한 세계로 표현.
Peace: Burial at Sea
1842; Oil on canvas, 86.9 x 86.6 cm; Clore Gallery for the Turner Collection, London
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Rain, Steam and Speed
1844; Oil on canvas, 90.8 x 121.9 cm; National Gallery, London
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Sunrise with Sea Monsters
c. 1845; Oil on canvas, 91.5 x 122 cm; Tate Gallery, London

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Sunrise with Sea Monsters (detail)
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Slavers throwing overboard the Dead and Dying - Typhon coming on ("The Slave Ship")
1840; Oil on canvas, 90.8 x 122.6 cm; Museum of Fine Arts, Boston
Snowstorm

1842; Oil on canvas, 91.5 x 122 cm
Staffa, Fingal's Cave

1832; Oil on canvas, 90.9 x 121.4 cm; Yale Center for British Art, New Haven
The Fighting "Temeraire" tugged to her last berth to be broken up

1838; Oil on canvas, 91 x 122 cm; National Gallery, London
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The Burning of the Houses of Lords and Commons, 16th October, 1834
1835; Oil on canvas, 92 x 123 cm; Philadelphia Museum of Art
Ulysses deriding Polyphemus - Homer's Odyssey
1829; Oil on canvas, 132.5 x 203 cm; National Gallery, London

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Shade and Darkness - the Evening of the Deluge
1843; Oil on canvas, 78.5 x 78 cm; Tate Gallery, London
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Colour Beginning
1819; Watercolor, 22.5 x 28.6 cm; Tate Gallery, London
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Dido building Carthage; or the Rise of the Carthaginian Empire
1815; Oil on canvas, 155.5 x 232 cm; National Gallery, London

어렸을 때부터 느껴왔던 삶의 고통, 상처, 빈곤, 민중들의 희생. 누이의 죽음으로 정신병동에 간  터너의 엄마,
1800년대 초기 영국의 고통스런 현실을 화폭에 담는다. 심각한 실업문제, 나폴레옹 전쟁, 혼란 , 정치인이자 문학가인 월터 포커스의 노예무역 폐지에 동참.

강렬한 빛과 어둠. 혹한과 바람이 부는 겨울 풍경. 희망이라고는 보이지 않는 풍경.터너의 그림에서는 실체가 작아지고 나약한 인간을 표현. 산업혁명이 일어나면서부터 증기선을 그렸다.  1840년대 노예제 폐지로 인해 노예선을 그리며 말세의 풍경을 보여주는 작품을 하였다. 영국전통에서 벗어나 환각속의 ㅗ습을 표현하여 기이한 인물로 각인.
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  1. A 2014.04.09 17:31 Address Modify/Delete Reply



    컨스터블 건초마차- 1821 년 런던에서그린 작품 '한낮의 풍경, 전원적 평화
    고향 플랫포드 방앗간 근처. 노년의 컨스터블 집 연기로 그가 살고있다는 걸 암시
    평화로운 마을에서 말을 쉬게하는 애정.
    맑고 푸른 빛의 절대성, 원초적 휴머니즘 이 뭔지 보여준다. 삶의 참의미
    새로운 프랑스 낭만주의 영향

    터너. 역동적인 자연의 변화 순수한 색채와. 빛의변화 ( 비 증기 속력
    프랑스 혁명 에 고무되어 합리적인 정신보다 인간의 생생한 감정을
    전함 테메레르호. 1839
    프랑스와 겨룬 1805 트라팔가 해전 승리한 영국.
    ,증기선에 끌려 선박처리장으로 운반되어가는 전함의 무상. 장대한일몰과 낡은전함
    향수와 상실의 분위 전쟁과 평화 삶과 죽음, 과거와 미래, - 붉은 노을 배경으로 서정시처럼 배어난다.

18세기 후반 폼페이와 헤르쿨라네움의 고고학 발굴은 신고전주의의 시작을 알렸다. 신고전주의는 예술부터 신화, 생활양식그리고 교육방식 까지 고대 그리스.로마의 문화를 받아들였으며, 이러한 고전문화의 부활은 예술영역에서 더욱 도드라졌다.


David, Jacques-Louis (1748-1825).
French painter, one of the central figures of Neoclassicism.

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Consecration of the Emperor Napoleon I and Coronation of the Empress Josephine in the Cathedral of Notre-Dame de Paris on 2 December 1804. 1808. Oil on canvas. 621 x 979 cm. Louvre, Paris, France.

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The Intervention of the Sabine Women.
1799. Oil on canvas. 385 x 522 cm. Louvre, Paris, France
당시 로마에 여인이 부족해서 사비니 여인들을 납치하고 그 후 사비니 군인들이 로마에게 복수하는 장면. 하지만, 이미 로마인의 아내가 되어있는 사비니 여인 헤르실레아는 그들의 형제아버지에게 화해할 것을 요청...

The Sabine Women Enforcing Peace by Running Between the Combatants
detail, 1794-99 (70 Kb); Louvre



Napoleon at St. Bernard  1800 (30 Kb)



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Napoleon in His Study
1812 (130 Kb); Oil on canvas, 203.9 x 125.1 cm (80 1 / 4 x 49 1 / 4 in); The National Gallery of Art, Washington, DC
거의 탄 작은 촛불이 켜있는 늦은 밤, 나폴레옹은 여전히 서재애서 일하고 있는 듯한 모습.

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The Death of Socrates
1787 (100 Kb); Oil on canvas, 129.5 x 196.2 cm (51 x 77 1 / 4 in); The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York

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Marat Assassinated
1793 (120 Kb); Oil on canvas, 165 x 128.3 cm (65 x 50 1 / 2 in); Musees Royaux des Beaux-Arts de Belgique
다비드는 정치에 관심을 갖고 있고 그의 작품은 오싹하고 섬뜩한 느낌을 주었다.
장 폴 마라는 프랑스입장에서 봤을 땐 죽어마땅한 사람이지만, 마치 순교자인 듯 성자처럼 묘사하여 순결한 인물로 다시 . 거짓으로 감동을 주는 예술.
루이 16세가 죽자, 공화당 체제로 들어가면서 다비드도 입당하고 옆에는 마라 그리고 로베스피에로. 혁명정부의 참여를 거부하는 사람을 다 죽임.  하지만, 단지 예술가라 생각하여 후에도  처형되지 않았다.











Ingres, Jean - Auguste - Dominique (1780-1867). French painter, Montauban was born, a minor painter and sculptor, Jean - Marie - Joseph Ingres (1755 에서 1814 사이) son.


Jean - Auguste - Dominique Ingres.
Jupiter and Thetis. 1811. Canvas 51. Musée Granet, Aix - en - Provence, France.

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0 weeks of the portrait of De Broglie.
1853. Canvas 51. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, USA.

 

 

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Turkish bath
1862 (100 managers); oil timber, diameter 108cm (42 1 / 2 "); Musee Louvre later, in Paris on canvas

Jean - Auguste - Dominique Ingres. Le Grande odalisque. 1814. Canvas 51. Louvre Museum, Paris, France.

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Odalisque with slave
1840 (130 managers); 51 canvas mounted on panel 29 3 / 8 x 39 3 / 8, Fogg Art Museum, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts

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Source
1856 (120 managers), oil on canvas, 163 x 80 ㎝ (5 '4 1 / 4 "× 2'7 1 / 2"); d'Musee Orsay, Paris


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Valpincon bather
1808 (140 managers), oil on canvas, 146 x 97.5 ㎝ (57 1 / 2 x 41 1 / 8), the Louvre Museum, Paris

Ingres, Jean - Auguste - Dominique


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Ingres, Jean - Auguste - Dominique (1780-1867). French painter, Montauban was born, a minor painter and sculptor, Jean - Marie - Joseph Ingres (1755 에서 1814 사이) son.

Riviere
In 1796 he went to Paris, a fellow student of Gros in David's studio early in the Toulouse Academy of Education and Research. The 1801, winning the Grand Prix de Rome, France's economy by 1807, in Rome, he did not receive regular night due to the state. Every year he produced the first portrait. Two categories: a portrait of himself and his friends, a romantic spirit (Gilibert, Mus well? Ingres, Montauban 1805), and a portrait - like the enamel on the purity of line, characterized by what the client how to get pregnant in the fall (Mlle Rivi? E , Louvre Museum, Paris, 1805) dye. These early portraits, including the company's capabilities beyond the outline and the form has its own sense of beauty in their representation of the outline of the calligraphic line and you can notice. It is a picture of his life, Ingres through the essential basics of the features were formed.

Valpincon bather
1808 (140 managers), oil on canvas, 146 x 97.5 ㎝ (57 1 / 2 x 41 1 / 8), the Louvre Museum, Paris


In Rome, he can continue to run the portrait, which is one of their favorite things first bathers start years theme pictures (Valpin? N bath, the Louvre Museum, Paris, 1808). He's in Rome on a scholarship after his 4 years, mainly pencil portraits by members of the French colony of living was imported. But he also Acron over Napoleon's palace in Rome (Triumph Romulus two decorative painting, the Ecole de Beaux - Arts, Paris, 1812; and Ossian's Dream, and received substantial fees Mus? Ingres, 1813). He's in Rome, Florence, 1820, where he for 4 years, usually 13 years, Louis and his oath of Raphaelesque, Montauban Cathedral commissioned the remaining 24. Ingres's work is often critical of Paris 'Gothic' distortions, since 1824, when the salon's reputation, and criticized his own party's new leader set to study for a romantic I was surprised to find this file with. (See Delacroix's Massacre of Chios had the same hair.)

Ingres in Paris the next 10 days to stay in the formal award was successful, and neulsu rokhaetda years. The two big works: Homer's Apotheosis, running on the ceiling of the Louvre museum devoted much time during this period (), and install the martyred St. 1827 Symphorian (Hair, 1834) is the cathedral of Autun. However, when the latter was drawing heavily, he of the French School in Rome, he kept seven days allowed direct years of the post. The model of the administrators and teachers, the school's facilities has improved greatly, but geuneunyi era produced several major works. The 1841 tribute to France once again has returned as a champion of traditional values. He and his wife died in 1849, this hurts, but it costs in 1852, he made a successful second marriage, and the tremendous energy into their 80s, were working. One of his acknowledged masterpiece, the most delicate and Turkish Bath (Louvre, 1863), the last three dates of his life. In his death, he, more than 4,000 drawings) Montauban in their home town (a few pictures of his work, now they are leaving large artifacts in the museum bearing his name is.






Francisco de Goya y Lucientes

(1746-1828) 

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Francisco de Goya. The Colossus. c. 1810-12. Oil on canvas, 116 x 105 cm. Museo del Prado, Madrid, Spain.

Francisco de Goya. The Giant.
1818. Aquatint with butnishing (first state), 29.2 x 21 cm. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, USA. 

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Group on a Balcony

c. 1810-15 (160 kB); Oil on canvas, 194.8 x 125.7 cm (76 3/4 x 49 1/2 in); Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York
Note from Allen Strouse: Considered by most scholars to be a forgery


A Prison Scene. c. 1810-14. Zinc, 42.9 x 31.7 cm. Bowes Museum, Barnard Castle, UK..

 

Francisco de Goya. The Third of May, 1808: The Execution of the Defenders of Madrid. 1814. Oil on canvas, 266 x 345 cm. Museo del Prado, Madrid, Spain.
마드리드, 1808년 5월 3일, 캔버스에 유채, 260x345cm, 1814년, 프라도 미술관.
프랑스의 나폴레옹 군대는 스페인의 마드리드를 점령하고 스페인 궁전 앞 프란시페 피오 언덕에서 애국자들을 처형했다. 고야는 이 현장을 직접 목격하고 잔인한 장면을 그림으로 옮겼다.

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Saturn Devouring One of His Chidren. c. 1820-23. Oil on canvas, 146 x 83 cm. Museo del Prado, Madrid, Spain.
크로노스 천왕성의 막내 아들 (하늘)와 가이아 (대지), 그래서, 그는 최초의 신의 세대 소유했다.
그는 그의 어머니, ovethrew 천왕성의 도움과 함께 하늘에 그의 자리를 대신했다. 마자 그는 세계의 자신의 여동생이 결혼을 크로노스 레아 통치자가되었다. 이후 그에게 그런 그는 자신의 아이 dethroned 될 것이라고 예언했다, 그는 모든대로 차례로 그들을 먹어 마자 그들이 태어 났 : Hestia (베스타), Demeter (세레스), 헤라 (주노), 하데스 (명왕성), 그리고 포세이돈 (넵튠). 오직 제우스 (목성) 그의 어머니 레아, 나중에 예언의 성취에 저장했다.
고대 로마 누스에서 토성과 발견했다.

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Charles IV and His Family. c. 1800. Oil on canvas. Museo del Prado, Madrid, Spain.


Francisco de Goya. The Parasol. 1777. Oil on canvas, 104 x 152 cm. Museo del Prado, Madrid, Spain.

Francisco de Goya. The Nude Maja (La Maja Desnuda). c. 1799-1800. Oil on canvas. Museo del Prado, Madrid, Spain.

Francisco de Goya. The Clothed Maja (La Maja Vestida). 1800-03. Oil on canvas. Museo del Prado, Madrid, Spain.

 

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  1. @artnstory Art&Story 2018.10.06 21:54 신고 Address Modify/Delete Reply

    18세기 후반 폼페이와 헤르쿨라네움의 고고학 발굴은 신고전주의의 시작을 알렸다. 신고전주의는 예술부터 신화, 생활양식그리고 교육방식 까지 고대 그리스.로마의 문화를 받아들였으며, 이러한 고전문화의 부활은 예술영역에서 더욱 도드라졌다.

    출처: http://art.nstory.org/entry/고전주의?category=38360 [Art & Story]

Hide and Seek

History of Arts/19C 2007.10.17 11:38 |

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Tissot James

Hide and Seek
 c. 1877 ; Oil on wood, 73.4 x 53.9 cm (28 7/8 x 21 1/4 in); National Gallery of Art, Washington
Several children are playing a game of hide and seek in the home and studio of the French painter James Jacques Joseph Tissot (pronounced
JAHM ZHOCK JO-SEF TEE-SO).

"READY OR NOT...HERE I COME," shouts the child whose turn it is to look. Ooops! One girl has just peeked from her hiding spot. How many children do you see hiding? Let's take a closer look. (Just click the picture and a larger version will pop up in a separate window.) When you've finished looking at the painting, close that window and click the forward arrow at the top or bottom of this page to continue.

 * 숨바꼭질 *
이 작품을 커튼을 중심으로 세로로 반으로 나누어 살펴보자.
우측에 바이올렛 드레스를 입고 신문을 읽고 있는 여인은 이 소란에 무관심한 듯 보이며 이 화면의 우측 무게 중심을 잡아준다. 반면, 좌측에는 병풍뒤의 한 소녀와 소파사이의 두소녀가 얼굴만 내민 채 숨어 있고, 전면에 빛을 받아 더 화사한 금발곱슬 머리 소녀가 하얀원피스에 다홍색 리본을 어깨 허리에 두르고 곧 찾아 나설 기세로 몸을 일으키고 있다. 앞에 공은 숨바꼭질하는 어린 소녀들의 놀이와 귀여움을 상징하는 것도 같다. 전체적으로 고급스런 인테리어를 한 어두운 부위기의 이 거실 우측에 자리잡은 전면 유리가 열리면서 파티오의 나무들과 햇살로 이 작품의 명도 중심 균형을 잡아 주고 있다.

Do you think the child in the white dress is a boy or a girl? We're still not positive, but based on the date of the painting and details we know about the artist's family life, we believe that the child on the floor is the artist's daughter. For many years people thought she was Tissot's young son! Back then young boys and girls often wore the same frilly clothing, so it was kind of hard to tell. The children who are hiding may be her cousins, who lived next-door, or playmates. Mom is shown at the far right, reading.


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James Jacques Joseph Tissot
(French, 1836 - 1902)

To hear the name, be sure your browser has the Flash plug-in. Just click the link below to download it.

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http://www.goodart.org/artofwb.htm

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밀레의 작품은 19세기 자연주의 작품이다.

이삭줍기

이삭을 줍는 아낙네들의 모습에서는 가시적으로 드러나는 노동의 이미지보다 무언가 성스러운 일을 하고 있는 고요함과 아름다운 자태가 느껴진다. 바로크 시대 얀 베르메르의 우유를 따르는 하녀 의 모습에서처럼
.

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1857 (40 Kb)

Millet, Jean-Fran?is


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(1814-75) The son of a small peasant farmer of Gr?ille in Normandy, Millet showed a precocious interest in drawing, and arrived in Paris in 1838 to become a pupil of Paul Delaroche. He had to fight against great odds, living for long a life of extreme penury. He exhibited at the Salon for the first time in 1840, and married two years later. At this time, the main influences on him were Poussin and Eustache Le Sueur, and the type of work he produced consisted predominantly of mythological subjects or portraiture, at which he was especially adept (Portrait of a Naval Officer, 1845; Mus? des Beaux-Arts, Rouen).

His memories of rural life, and his intermittent contacts with Normandy, however, impelled him to that concern with peasant life that was to be characteristic of the rest of his artistic career. In 1848 he exhibited The Winnower (now lost) at the Salon, and this was praised by Th?phile Gautier and bought by Alexandre Ledru-Rollin, the Minister of the Interior. In 1849, when a cholera epidemic broke out in Paris, Millet moved to Barbizon on the advice of the engraver Charles-Emile Jacque (1813-94) and took a house near that of Th?dore Rousseau. Devoted to this area as a subject for his work, he was one of those who most clearly helped to create the Barbizon School. His paintings on rural themes attracted growing acclaim and between 1858 and 1859 he painted the famous
Ang?us (Mus? d'Orsay), which 40 years later was to be sold for the sensational price of 553,000 francs.

Although he was officially distrusted because of his real or imaginary Socialist leanings, his own attitude towards his chosen theme of peasant life was curiously ambivalent. Being of peasant stock, he tended to look upon farmworkers as narrow-minded and oblivious of beauty, and did not accept the notion that `honest toil' was the secret of happiness. In fact, his success partly stemmed from the fact that, though compared with most of his predecessors and, indeed, his contemporaries, he was a `Realist', he presented this reality in an acceptable form, with a religious or idyllic gloss. Nevertheless, he became a symbol to younger artists, to whom he gave help and encouragement. It was he who, on a visit to Le Havre to paint portraits, encouraged Boudin to become an artist, and his work certainly influenced the young Monet, and even more decidedly so Pissarro, who shared similar political inclinations.

Although towards the end of his life, when he started using a lighter palette and freer brushstrokes, his work showed some affinities with Impressionism, his technique was never really close to theirs. He never painted out-of-doors, and he had only a limited awareness of tonal values, but his draughtsmanship had a monumentality that appealed to artists such as Seurat and van Gogh, who was also enthralled by his subject-matter, with its social implications. Millet's career was greatly helped by Durand-Ruel.

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만종

풍경과 인물을 떼어내도 2개의 완벽한 작품이 만들어질만한  명작이다.
생활고를 위한 노동의 모습이 아닌 경건한 분위기에서 고귀한 일을 하고 있는 젊은 부부의 모습이다.
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Rue de Paris, temps de pluie
Intersection de la Rue de Turin et de la Rue de Moscou
1877 ; Paris: A Rainy Day depicts an area of the Batignolles quarter.
Oil on canvas, 212.2 x 276.2 cm (83 1/2 x 108 3/4"); The Art Institute of Chicago; part of the Charles H and Mary F.s. Worcester Fund

*Batignolles가 지역의 비오는 날*
우산을 쓴 댄디한 파리쟝들의 모습.
빗방울이 그려져 있지 않지만, 관객은 바닥의 아른거리는 그림자를 보며 비를 그려낼 수 있다. 영국과 마찬가지로 화창한 날씨가 드문 파리, 영국의 은행가와 비슷한 지리, 뉴욕의 그리니치 광장의 건물을 연상케하는 가로등 뒤로 쭉 뻗은 건물.
안개낀 날씨탓에 은근히 사라지는 듯한 건물들의 원근법 효과와 선명히 뽑아져나온 듯 두드러진 우측 하단의 두 남녀, 특히 파리지엔느의 이어링이라는 작지만 사실적인 오브제로 하여금 이 그림을 선명하고 산뜻한 느낌으로 이끌어냄으로써 큰 효과를 가져다준다.
"미술과 패션"이들은 당시 파리의 패션을 알 수 있는 세련된 의상으로 상류층의 모습을 연상할 수 있다. 신사의 높은 모자는 '물랑루즈' 에서 하늘높이 던져올려진 바로 그 모자임을 기억해 낼 수 있을 것이다.

최근에 내가 가장
빠져있는 작품 중 하나다.

Rue de Paris, temps de pluie; Intersection de la Rue de Turin et de la Rue de Moscou
1877 (100 Kb); Paris: A Rainy Day depicts an area of the Batignolles quarter.
Oil on canvas, 212.2 x 276.2 cm (83 1/2 x 108 3/4"); The Art Institute of Chicago; part of the Charles H and Mary F.s. Worcester Fund

Gustave Caillebotte, b. Aug. 19, 1848, d. Feb. 21, 1894, was a French painter and a generous patron of the impressionists, whose own works, until recently, were neglected.

He was an engineer by profession, but also attended the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Paris. He met Edgar Degas, Claude Monet, and Pierre Auguste Renoir in 1874 and helped organize the first impressionist exhibition in Paris that same year. He participated in later shows and painted some 500 works in a more realistic style than that of his friends. Caillebotte's most intriguing paintings are those of the broad, new Parisian boulevards. The boulevards were painted from high vantage points and were populated with elegantly clad figures strolling with the expressionless intensity of somnambulists, as in Boulevard Vu d'en Haut (1880; private collection, Paris). Caillebotte's superb collection of impressionist paintings was left to the French government on his death. With considerable reluctance the government accepted part of the collection.


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seurat georges
Sunday Afternoon on the Island of La Grande Jatte
1884-86; "Sunday Afternoon on the Island of La Grande Jatte"; Oil on canvas, 81 x 120 in; Signed, bottom right; Art Institute of Chicago, Helen Birch Bartlett Collection

*그랑 자트 섬의 일요일 오후*
쇠라만의 스타일을 느낄 수 있는 작품.
한가로운 오후 시간이 멈춘 듯한 정지화면이 이 작품에서 유독 더 강한 이유가 뭘 까?
은은 하고 아련함이 묻어나는 그만의 기법으로 인한 연유가 아닐까 싶다.
햇볕이 드는 잔디와 그늘진 잔디, 하늘을 가리운 나무들, 그리고 바다의 색들과 보색되는 붉은 색과 어두운 색의 사람들의 모습.
그것으로 인하여 자연에서 보여지는 산뜻함과 싱그러움이 한층 더 강조되고 있다.


Un dimanche apr?-midi ?l'Ile de la Grande Jatte
1884-86; "Sunday Afternoon on the Island of La Grande Jatte"; Oil on canvas, 81 x 120 in; Signed, bottom right; Art Institute of Chicago, Helen Birch Bartlett Collection

The question has been asked whether Seurat's great work should be regarded as the necessary outcome of Impressionist ideas or as deliberately anti-Impressionist, and an answer might be that it contains elements of both. In pursuing the analysis of colour, Seurat carried on, though in more systematic fashion, what Monet and Pissarro had been doing. The division of colour was scarcely new, though the primary colours were more scientifically defined by the range he based on the spectrum; but he added to this divisionism or pointillism an equally elaborate and scientifically considered treatment of line in order to attain a harmonious unity of composition, which was distinct from the Impressionist aim of suggesting light, atmosphere and movement.

The difference is more readily perceptible in a figure composition as here than in landscape. The men, women and children enjoying the sun in the public park on the island of La Grande Jatte in the Seine have the sort of fixity that a moving film acquires when it comes suddenly to a halt; they are frozen in their various attitudes. As a preliminary, Seurat made a number of oil sketches on the spot in a free and indeed Impressionist style. The finished work was intentionally different. The technique used is so interesting that it is apt to gain exclusive attention. One becomes absorbed in the geometric order that Seurat has imposed on the scene and this certainly is an opposite value to that of Impressionism. Pissarro, Signac and other artists attracted by the pointilliste method were somewhat led astray by the assumption that it opened up a new prospect solely in terms of translating light into colour. The comparison that has often been made between the Italian master of the geometrically-conceived composition, Piero della Francesca, and the Seurat of La Grande Jatte is justified in demonstrating the latter's essential direction. Absorbed though he was with theory, it would be wrong to assess Seurat as one unaware of the life around him. The statuesque figures to the right are the acme of bourgeois propriety though the lady may show pretensions to the eccentricity of `high life' by having a pet monkey on a lead. In many details it is a reality magically become unreal. A moment of charm is made lasting in the little girl running and the nearer girl bending over her bunch of flowers. The racing four that flashed across the canvases of Monet and Renoir at Argenteuil and other river craft here have the sharpness of a miniature.


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To comment on this vast canvas where Seurat for the first time succeeded in applying, with scientific rigor, the theory of optical mixture by the division of tones-a technique which Rubens, Watteau, and Delacroix had employed intuitively-one cannot do better than to quote the following text by Jules Christophe. It was published in Les Hommes d'aujourd'hui, No. 368, an issue devoted to Seurat. The list of motives was dictated and revised by the artist himself:

Under a blazing midafternoon summer sky, we see the Seine flooded with sunshine, smart town houses on the opposite bank, and small steamboats, sailboats, and a skiff moving up and down the river. Under the trees closer to us many people are strolling, others are sitting or stretched out lazily on the bluish grass. A few are fishing. There are young ladies, a nursemaid, a Dantesque old grandmother under a parasol, a sprawled-out boatman smoking his pipe, the lower part of his trousers completely devoured by the implacable sunlight. A dark-colored dog of no particular breed is sniffing around, a rust-colored butterfly hovers in mid-air, a young mother is strolling with her little girl dressed in white with a salmon-colored sash, two budding young Army officers from Saint-Cyr are walking by the water. Of the young ladies, one of them is making a bouquet, another is a girl with red hair in a blue dress. We see a married couple carrying a baby, and, at the extreme right, appears a scandalously hieratic-looking couple, a young dandy with a rather excessively elegant lady on his arm who has a yellow, purple, and ultramarine monkey on a leash.

There was public resistance to the picture at first, Arsene Alexandre tells us: Everything was so new in this immense painting-the conception was bold and the technique one that nobody had never seen or heard before. This was the famous pointillism.

When exhibited at the Independants, the work aroused sneers and indignation. There were outcries, Christophe goes on to say, but by standing its ground the picture's revolutionary character won out in the end. Its success was immediately hailed in La Vogue, to which Felix Feneon contributed a lively, logical, and well-informed article.

Prior to its acquisition by the Art Institute of Chicago, the painting was owned successively by Seurat's mother, Maximillien Luce, Edmond Cousturier, and Charles Vildrac.



Seurat, Georges


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(b. Dec. 2, 1859, Paris--d. March 29, 1891, Paris)
Painter, founder of the 19th-century French school of Neo-Impressionism whose technique for portraying the play of light using tiny brushstrokes of contrasting colours became known as Pointillism. Using this techique, he created huge compositions with tiny, detached strokes of pure colour too small to be distinguished when looking at the entire work but making his paintings shimmer with brilliance. Works in this style include Une Baignade (1883-84) and Un dimanche apr?-midi ?l'Ile de la Grande Jatte (1884-86).

A French painter who was a leader in the neo-impressionist movement of the late 19th century, Georges Seurat is the ultimate example of the artist as scientist. He spent his life studying color theories and the effects of different linear structures. His 500 drawings alone establish Seurat as a great master, but he will be remembered for his technique called pointillism, or divisionism, which uses small dots or strokes of contrasting color to create subtle changes in form.

Georges-Pierre Seurat was born on Dec. 2, 1859, in Paris. He studied at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in 1878 and 1879. His teacher was a disciple of Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres. Young Seurat was strongly influenced by Rembrandt and Francisco de Goya.

After a year of military service at Brest, Seurat exhibited his drawing Aman-Jean at the official Salon in 1883. Panels from his painting Bathing at Asnieres were refused by the Salon the next year, so Seurat and several other artists founded the Societe des Artistes Independants. His famous canvas Sunday Afternoon on the Island of the Grande Jatte was the centerpiece of an exhibition in 1886. By then Seurat was spending his winters in Paris, drawing and producing one large painting each year, and his summers on France's northern coast. In his short life Seurat produced seven monumental paintings, 60 smaller ones, drawings, and sketchbooks. He kept his private life very secret, and not until his sudden death in Paris on March 29, 1891, did his friends learn of his mistress, who was the model for his painting Young Woman Holding a Powder Puff.

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seurat
The Side Show
1888; Oil on Canvas, 39 3/4 x 59 1/8 in; Unsigned; The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York. Bequest of Stephen C. Clark, 1960

*쇼의 일면*
죠르쥬 쇠라는 흔히 신인상주의의 창시자로 알려져 있다.
그는 인상주의를 바탕으로 한 새로운 인상주의로 분할주의라 일컫는 점묘법을 이용하여 신선한 작품을 선보였다.
영화 <Before sunrise>에서 여주인공이 비엔나의 한 길가에 붙어있는 쇠라의 전시회 포스터를 보며 한 말이 생각난다.
"배경이 인물에 스며드는 느낌이 좋아" 라고...
점으로 표현하여 주제와 배경이 하나로 통일되고, 화면속에 주제는 더욱 선명하게 드러난다.색채의 병치혼합과 보색 또한 이 시기의 특징인데,
이 시기부터 본격적으로 과학적인 색채학이 연구되기 시작하였다.

Seurat, Georges

(b. Dec. 2, 1859, Paris--d. March 29, 1891, Paris)
Painter, founder of the 19th-century French school of Neo-Impressionism whose technique for portraying the play of light using tiny brushstrokes of contrasting colours became known as Pointillism. Using this techique, he created huge compositions with tiny, detached strokes of pure colour too small to be distinguished when looking at the entire work but making his paintings shimmer with brilliance. Works in this style include Une Baignade (1883-84) and Un dimanche apr?-midi ?l'Ile de la Grande Jatte (1884-86).

A French painter who was a leader in the neo-impressionist movement of the late 19th century, Georges Seurat is the ultimate example of the artist as scientist. He spent his life studying color theories and the effects of different linear structures. His 500 drawings alone establish Seurat as a great master, but he will be remembered for his technique called pointillism, or divisionism, which uses small dots or strokes of contrasting color to create subtle changes in form.

Georges-Pierre Seurat was born on Dec. 2, 1859, in Paris. He studied at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in 1878 and 1879. His teacher was a disciple of Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres. Young Seurat was strongly influenced by Rembrandt and Francisco de Goya.

After a year of military service at Brest, Seurat exhibited his drawing Aman-Jean at the official Salon in 1883. Panels from his painting Bathing at Asnieres were refused by the Salon the next year, so Seurat and several other artists founded the Societe des Artistes Independants. His famous canvas Sunday Afternoon on the Island of the Grande Jatte was the centerpiece of an exhibition in 1886. By then Seurat was spending his winters in Paris, drawing and producing one large painting each year, and his summers on France's northern coast. In his short life Seurat produced seven monumental paintings, 60 smaller ones, drawings, and sketchbooks. He kept his private life very secret, and not until his sudden death in Paris on March 29, 1891, did his friends learn of his mistress, who was the model for his painting Young Woman Holding a Powder Puff.




The Side Show

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

1888; Oil on Canvas, 39 3/4 x 59 1/8 in; Unsigned; The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York. Bequest of Stephen C. Clark, 1960

After the outdoor light of La Grande Jatte and the studio light of The Models, here is an artificial light; the gas and acetylene lamps create the mood of traveling fairs.

This work shows to what extent Seurat was concerned with construction. It is clear here how deeply Seurat had been impressed by David Sutter's observations on the architectonics of classical works of art. The canvas analyzes itself, as it were. It would be pedantic nowadays to trace the counterpoint of verticals and horizontals, clear-cut rectangles and blurred ovals, the whole broken by a few slanting lines (the branches of the tree, the ringmaster's riding crop, the railing of the staircase behind the trombone player at the center).

This is perhaps the sole work of nineteenth-century painting that unequivocally anticipates Cubism (and even Purism). It heralds the coming of a new school, which, from 1908 on, was to revolutionize form no less profoundly than Seurat revolutionized the treatment of color.

Seurat here is at his coldest and most austere. It would seem that the balance of La Grande Jatte and The Models has given way to excessive deliberateness. We may say that like certain works of Poussin, The Side Show is a painting which has been wholly thought out in advance.

The face of the ringmaster (or perhaps animal trainer), with the same haircut and mustache twisted to turn up, will reappear in Le Chahut, where the riding crop is replaced by the conductor's baton.



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Impression: soleil levant
sunrise, sunset
Impression 으로 붙여진 이 작품으로 인하여 impressionism이라는 사조가 생겨나기 시작했다.
야외에서 그 순간을 포착해서 그리다보니,
순식간에 단숨에 그려 가까이에서 이 그림을 볼 때면 무엇을 그렸는지 형태를 알 수없고 물감만을 발라놓은 것 같은 그림이 인상주의 작가들의 특징이다. 하지만, 이 그림들을 멀리서 바라보면 이것은 그야말로 사진과 거의 흡사하다시피한 완벽한 풍경이었던 것이다.

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Impression, soleil levant (Impression, Sunrise)
1873 (210 Kb); Oil on canvas, 48 x 63 cm (19 x 24 3/8"); Musee Marmottan, Paris


Monet painted this picture of the sun seen through mist at the harbour of Le Havre when he was staying there in the spring of 1872. A sketch quickly executed to catch the atmospheric moment, it was catalogued as Impression: soleil levant when exhibited in 1874 in the first exhibition of the group (as yet described simply as the Soci??Anonyme des Artistes-Peintres). The word `Impression' was not so unusual that it had never before been applied to works of art but the scoffing article by Louis Leroy in Le Charivari which coined the word Impressionnistes as a general description of the exhibitors added a new term to the critical vocabulary that was to become historic. It was first adopted by the artists themselves for their third group exhibition in 1877, though some disliked the label. It was dropped from two of the subsequent exhibitions as a result of disagreements but otherwise defied suppression.

Monet's Impression was not in itself a work that need be regarded as the essential criterion of Impressionism, vivid sketch though it is. There are many works before and after that represent the aims and achievements of the movement more fully. Yet it has a particular lustre and interest in providing the movement with its name.

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Monet, Claude
Coquelicots (Poppies, Near Argenteuil)
1873; Musee d'Orsay, Paris

*양귀비꽃*
모네의 이 작품은 행복해보인다.
풍경에 인물이 들어있다.
모자쓴 여인과 소녀의 모습이
햇살을 즐기러 나온 모녀가 아닐까?
하늘과 양귀비밭이 1:1 비율이지만
양귀비꽃과 인물로 인해 안정감있고 지루하지 않은 작품이다.

Monet, Claude: early works
Garden at Sainte-Adresse
1867 ; Oil on canvas, 98.1 x 129.9 cm (38 5/8 x 51 1/8 in); Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York

햇살에 앉아 있는 노부부와 바다를 바라보는 젊은 부부.
바다와 꽃들이 만발한 정원이 보여진다...'끌로드 모네'(1840-1926)..

..그는 무척이나 그림을 빨리 그리는 화가였다고 한다..
..많은 인상주의 그림들이 그러하듯이..
..그의 작업은 대부분 화실이 아닌 야외에서 이루어졌으며..
..그때마다 그는 하루만에 그림을 완성시켰다고 한다..
..어느날 누군가 그에게 이렇게 물었다고 한다..
..오늘 다 못그리면 내일 마저 그리면 되지않느냐고..

.."지금 우리가 보고있는 이 빛이..
.. 내일도 같으리라고 생각하십니까?"

..그것이 그의 대답이었다..

..사람들은 가끔 내게 물어온다..
..무거운 카메라 가방을 왜 매일 들고다니냐고..
..모네의 대답으로 그 질문의 답을 대신하려한다..
..내일은 비가 멎어버릴지도 모르니까..
..내일이면 유리창에 저 빗물이 말라버릴지도 모르니까..
..내일은 그사람이 그 자리에 없을지도 모르니까..
..내일도 오늘 같다면 사는게 너무 재미없을테니까..

..<내일은 오늘과 달라야만 한다>..


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Water Lilies (The Clouds)
1903 (180 Kb); Oil on canvas, 74.6 x 105.3 cm (29 3/8 x 41 7/16 in); Private collection

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Waterlilies
1906 (190 Kb); Oil on canvas, 87.6 x 92.7 cm (34 1/2 x 36 1/2 in); The Art Institute of Chicago

His youth was spent in Le Havre, where he first excelled as a caricaturist but was then converted to landscape painting by his early mentor Boudin, from whom he derived his firm predilection for painting out of doors. In 1859 he studied in Paris at the Atelier Suisse and formed a friendship with Pissarro. After two years' military service in Algiers, he returned to Le Havre and met Jongkind, to whom he said he owed `the definitive education of my eye'. He then, in 1862, entered the studio of Gleyre in Paris and there met Renoir, Sisley, and Bazille, with whom he was to form the nucleus of the Impressionist group. Monet's devotion to painting out of doors is illustrated by the famous story concerning one of his most ambitious early works, Women in the Garden (Mus? d'Orsay, Paris; 1866-67). The picture is about 2.5 meters high and to enable him to paint all of it outside he had a trench dug in the garden so that the canvas could be raised or lowered by pulleys to the height he required. Courbet visited him when he was working on it and said Monet would not paint even the leaves in the background unless the lighting conditions were exactly right.

During the Franco-Prussian War (1870-71) he took refuge in England with Pissarro: he studied the work of Constable and Turner, painted the Thames and London parks, and met the dealer Durand-Ruel, who was to become one of the great champions of the Impressionists. From 1871 to 1878 Monet lived at Argenteuil, a village on the Seine near Paris, and here were painted some of the most joyous and famous works of the Impressionist movement, not only by Monet, but by his visitors Manet, Renoir and Sisley. In 1878 he moved to V?heuil and in 1883 he settled at Giverny, also on the Seine, but about 40 miles from Paris. After having experienced extreme poverty, Monet began to prosper. By 1890 he was successful enough to buy the house at Giverny he had previously rented and in 1892 he married his mistress, with whom he had begun an affair in 1876, three years before the death of his first wife. From 1890 he concentrated on series of pictures in which he painted the same subject at different times of the day in different lights---Haystacks or Grainstacks (1890-91) and Rouen Cathedral (1891-95) are the best known. He continued to travel widely, visiting London and Venice several times (and also Norway as a guest of Queen Christiana), but increasingly his attention was focused on the celebrated water-garden he created at Giverny, which served as the theme for the series of paintings on Water-lilies that began in 1899 and grew to dominate his work completely (in 1914 he had a special studio built in the grounds of his house so he could work on the huge canvases).

In his final years he was troubled by failing eyesight, but he painted until the end. He was enormously prolific and many major galleries have examples of his work

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Waterlilies, Green Reflection, Left Part
1916-1923; Orangerie, Paris

Monet, Claude
monet, Claude (b. Nov. 14, 1840, Paris, Fr.--d. Dec. 5, 1926, Giverny)
French painter, initiator, leader, and unswerving advocate of the Impressionist style. He is regarded as the archetypal Impressionist in that his devotion to the ideals of the movement was unwavering throughout his long career, and it is fitting that one of his pictures--Impression: Sunrise (Mus? Marmottan, Paris; 1872)--gave the group his name.

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아내와 아들.  그들의 얼굴보다는 햇살속에 들판에 서있는 모습을 아름답게 표현하고 있다. 

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빛과 색채의 관계, 양산위 빛과 투과한 빛의 차이, 둔덕 위 풀잎은  햇살이 비칠 때와 그림자 속에서 어떻게 달라지는가?
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