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'history of arts'에 해당되는 글 111건

  1. 2007.11.27 * Banksy (뱅크시)
  2. 2007.11.23 * Angela Bulloch
  3. 2007.11.23 * 이형구
  4. 2007.11.22 * mimic06
  5. 2007.11.14 후기 인상주의-쇠라 (1)
  6. 2007.11.13 Auguste Rodin (1)
  7. 2007.11.12 19C- 상징주의
  8. 2007.10.17 게르하르트 리히터(Gerhard Richter) - 1932~
  9. 2007.10.17 Hide and Seek
  10. 2007.10.04 보테로 [Fernando Botero, 1932~]

www.banksy.co.uk

잘못된 이념에 저항하지 않는다면  우리의 문명은  정체되고 썩는다.

예술가의 작품은 자유를 향한 마지막 목소리다.

우리는 멈춰서도 안되고, 침묵해서도 안된다.

이것이 예술인의 의무다.

어느 사진작가의 말이 떠오른다.
제 목소리를 내지 못하는 사람들의 목소리를 대신하기 위하여,
  진실의 순간을  알리고자 카메라의 셔터를 누른다고 했다, 
파블로 피카소의말  "어떻게 예술가가 다른사람들의 일에 무관심할 수 있습니까? "
그의 작품 <게르니카>에서....

지금 우리시대의  모습을 기억할 수 있는 진실의 목소리가,
뱅크시의 작품에서.

 

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www.banksy.co.uk

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메트로폴리탄 미술관에...

대영박물관, 자연사 박물관, 모마, 에 전시...

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자본주의와  소비사회 비판, 자본주의를 포기하라.1





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"The Singing Butler"

Jack Vettriano (1951~ ) 스코틀랜드

Dance me to the end of love 


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graffiti art 가 영국 전역에 활기차게 진행중.
그리고, 작은 갤러리 에서 undergroud 작가들의 전시가 곳곳에.
뱅크시의 작품은 라자리드 갤러리에 그의 진품을 가지고 있습니다.

거리 예술을 하는 D* Face는 거리에서 지워지는 작품을 보며, 스톨른 스페이스 갤러리를 운영하며 본인 작품을 전시하고 있습니다.

ADAM NATE는 1년에 5000여점을 그리는 거리예술가로, 엘름스 레스터 갤러리 에서 전시.
작년에는 옥스퍼드 거리에 2006 산타게토전 에서 뱅크시와 그 외의 거리예술가들의 작품전.그 외에도 호스피탈갤러리에서는 앤디워홀& 뱅크시 전이 열렸읍니다.


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뱅크시의 작업은 주로 스텐실 작업이다. 완벽한 실루엣을 할수록 대중이 쉽게 이해할 수 있는 작품으로 보여진다. 그러한 실루엣 작업으로는 지금 미국에서 주목받는 작가 카라 워커의 작업도 주시해볼 필요가 있다. 카라워커 자료~

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http://www.artnet.com/artist/3307/angela-bulloch.html

*  Angela Bulloch

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ANGELA BULLOCH, geb. 1966 in Rainy River, Kanada, lebt und arbeitet in London und Berlin
EINZELAUSSTELLUNGEN (AUSWAHL): 2005 Modern Art Oxford; Le Consortium, Dijon; The Missing 13 th, Galeria Helga de Alvear, Madrid; 2004 Antimatter, Galerie Eva Presenhuber, Zürich; 2003 New Work 8: Angela Bulloch, World Reflections , Aspen Art Museum, Aspen Colorado; Matrix 206: macromatrix for your pleasure, BAM/PFA-Exhibitions, Berkeley; 2002 Macro World - One Hour 3 and Canned, Schipper und Krome, Berlin; Angela Bulloch, Institute of Visual Culture, Cambridge; Chain, Galerie Micheline Szwajcer, Antwerpen; 2001 Z-Point, Kunsthaus Glarus; 2000 Prototypes, Galerie Hauser & Wirth & Presenhuber, Zürich; From the Eiffel Tower to the Riesenrad, Kerstin Engholm Galerie, Wien
GRUPPENAUSSTELLUNGEN (AUSWAHL): 2005 Ambiance - Auf beiden Seiten des Rheins, K21, Kunstsammlung NRW, Düsseldorf; Extreme Abstraction, Albright Knox Gallery, Buffalo; Bidibidobidiboo, Fondazione Sandretto Re Rebaudengo, Turin; 2004 Playlist, Palais de Tokyo, Paris; Performative Architektur, Galerie der zeitgenössischen Kunst, Leipzig; One on One, Van Abbemuseum, Eindhoven; Vilette Numerique, Parc et Grand Hall La Vilette, Paris; ein-leuchten, Museum der Moderne, Salzburg; 2003 Utopia Station, La Biennale di Venezia; It's in our hands, Migros Museum für Gegenwartskunst, Zürich; Einbildung - Das Wahrnehmen in der Kunst, Kunsthaus Graz; 2002 Remix, Tate Liverpool; Claude Monet.bis zum digitalen Impressionismus, Fondation Beyeler, Riehen/Basel; Shanghai Biennial; Touch: Relational Art from the 1990s and now, San Francisco Art Institute; Frequenzen (Hz.). Audivisuelle Räume, Schirn Kunsthalle, Frankfurt; 2001 Arbeit Essen Angst, Kokerei Zollverein, Essen; art>music, Museum of Contemporary Art, Sydney; Connivence, Biennale de Lyon

ANGELA BULLOCH
AUSSTELLUNGSPROGRAMM 2005
To the Power of 4.
15. 9. – 13. 11. 2005
Hauptraum

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Angela Bulloch, To the Power of 4., 2005,

SecessionRegelsysteme und Ordnungsprinzipien – Strukturen, die unsere Umgebung und unser Verhalten organisieren – sind ein zentrales Thema in den Arbeiten von Angela Bulloch. Die Künstlerin kombiniert Licht, Ton, Text, Video und Objekt zu multidisziplinären Installationen, die Ausdrucksformen für eine aktuelle Verschränkung von Digitalität und historischer Moderne erkunden. Eine konkrete Übersetzung findet diese Auseinandersetzung u. a. in der Pixelbox, einem dreidimensionalen Würfel, der mittels eines modularen Lichtsystems in den Grundfarben Rot, Grün und Blau wie ein 16 Millionen Farben-Bildschirm programmiert werden kann. Pixel steht für "picture element" und ist die kleinste Einheit zur Darstellung eines Bildschirmbildes. Die rechteckige Form der Pixelbox erinnert wiederum an künstlerische Überlegungen der Minimal Art, z. B. an Arbeiten von Dan Flavin oder Donald Judd, und deren Auseinandersetzung mit Geometrie, Reduktion sowie farblichen Kompositionen.

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Angela Bulloch, To the Power of 4., 2005, Secession

Als offene Bühne inszeniert und lose arrangiert brechen die Pixelboxen die geometrische Ordnung des Raums. Die Serie von 3 großen Pixelboxen kombiniert Angela Bulloch mit zwei kleineren Formaten. Jede der 3 Gruppen folgt einer sichtbaren, inneren Logik: so schaffen die Verbindungskabel räumliche Verknüpfungen zwischen den Boxen, Farbe und Rhythmus stellen visuelle Bezüge her.

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RGB Spheres 2005. Foto: Carsten Eisfeld, beeldrecht: galerie Esther Schipper Berlijn.

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Minimal Art
De Pixel Boxes van Bulloch roepen associaties op met de minimal art. Vooral de vormentaal van de houten kubussen, maar ook de kleurenvlakken refereren duidelijk aan deze stroming en dan met name aan het werk van Donald Judd en Dan Flavin. Voor degenen die de kunstgeschiedenis niet zo duidelijk op het netvlies gebrand hebben staan, wordt het lastiger. In de zaalteksten wordt de stroming minimal art wel kort genoemd, maar er wordt niet diep genoeg op ingegaan om er echt een goed beeld van te geven, terwijl enige (visuele) kennis over de minimal art essentieel is om het werk van Bulloch te kunnen plaatsen.

Minimal art draaide maar om een ding: de vorm, het liefst één die niet uiteen kan vallen in andere vormen. Via deze oorspronkelijke sculpturen zochten de minimalisten naar zuiverheid, waarheid en oorspronkelijkheid. Donald Judd omschreef zijn werken eens als "the simple expression of complex thought". Deze uitspraak is ook zeker van toepassing op het werk van Angela Bulloch. Voor haar representeren de Pixel Boxes namelijk een denkbeeldige ruimte waarin verschillende noties over kunst, beeldanalyse en waarneming samenkomen. Ze refereren niet alleen aan minimal art, maar wekken door de centrale rol van de rechthoek, kubus, kleurcodes en seriële herhaling een heel spectrum aan links met 20e-eeuwse kunststromingen en theorieën tot leven: van het suprematisme, het constructivisme, het kubisme tot de pop art (denk aan de kleurgecodeerde portretten van Andy Warhol).

Daarnaast gaan de Pixel Boxes over de relatie abstractie en realisme. Hoewel dit voor velen twee tegengestelde begrippen zijn, laat Bulloch zien dat deze tegenstelling in de 21e eeuw niet meer zo gesteld kan worden - en eigenlijk nooit reëel is geweest. Haar kubussen tonen kleurvlakken die bestaan uit pixels uit bestaande films (bijvoorbeeld uit The Matrix). Vaak sta je er niet bij stil dat het realistische beeld dat je ziet op een schilderij of op televisie, opgebouwd is uit abstracte onderdelen, zoals picturale elementen (pixels) of verfstreken. De illusie van realiteit kan echter alleen opgewekt worden door het gebruik van abstracte elementen. Abstracte elementen kunnen wel op zichzelf bestaan, maar kunnen op hun beurt weer associaties opwekken met reële situaties.




Op(tical) Art
Bullochs werk RGB Spheres (2005) bestaat uit vier wanden met gekleurde lampen en is ontleend aan het schilderij White Disks van de Engelse kunstenares Bridget Riley. Bulloch deelde dit schilderij, dat bestaat uit talloze zwarte cirkels op een witte achtergrond, in vieren en bracht deze in kleur over op vier wanden. Zo geeft ze een tweedimensionaal werk in feite een derde dimensie. Optisch bedrog zorgt ervoor dat Rileys werk lijkt te flikkeren, te pulseren en te bewegen en brengt de beschouwer in een staat van voortdurende alertheid. Bulloch bereikt hetzelfde effect door de felgekleurde lampen afwisselend fel en minder fel te laten branden. Hiermee brengt ze de beschouwer in eenzelfde staat van alertheid als tijdens het tv-kijken, waarbij je ook continu naar flikkerend en veranderend kleurlicht kijkt. De borstvormige lampen zouden binnen deze context verwijzen naar de functie die een tv in een mensenleven kan hebben, namelijk die van zoethouder.

RGB additieve kleurmenging
RGB additieve kleurmenging
Ook de titel van het werk refereert aan de digitale informatie-uitwisseling en aan de pixel. De titel verwijst naar het R(ood)G(eel)B(lauw)-kleursysteem. Dit is een kleurcodering, een manier om een kleur uit te drukken als een combinatie van de drie primaire kleuren, uitgaande van additieve kleurmenging. Deze menging ontstaat door menging van verschillende kleuren licht. Wanneer de drie rode, groene en gele lichtbundels volledig samenvallen, ontstaat wit licht. Wanneer alleen rood en groen licht samenvallen ontstaat bijvoorbeeld geel. Deze techniek wordt onder andere gebruikt bij beeldschermen. Aan de binnenkant van het glas zitten aan de voorzijde de pixels, kleine puntjes die licht in de primaire kleuren rood, groen en blauw kunnen uitstralen. Voor het oog kunnen deze drie bronnen samenvallen, waardoor op het scherm alle kleuren van de regenboog waar te nemen zijn. In het werk RGB Spheres wordt dus in principe dezelfde techniek gebruikt als in de Pixel Boxes: de visuele uitkomst is echter totaal anders



Interactiviteit
De interactiviteit in deze presentatie is nogal dubieus. Neem een installatie als Macro World (2002), waarin 35 Pixel Boxes opgestapeld zijn (vijf hoog en zeven breed). Deze muur van kleurvlakken wordt weerspiegeld in het plafond. Wanneer je jezelf hiervoor positioneert, lijkt het alsof het ritme van de kleurverandering beïnvloed wordt door jouw aanwezigheid.

Macro World, 2002. Foto: Carsten Eisfeld, beeldrecht: galerie Esther Schipper Berlijn.
Macro World, 2002. Foto: Carsten Eisfeld, beeldrecht: galerie Esther Schipper Berlijn.
Enkele ogenblikken later vermoed je dat dit slechts een illusie was om daarna opnieuw aan het twijfelen te worden gebracht. Als je voor de wand staat, verander je het werk natuurlijk wel iets: jij wordt op dat moment namelijk zelf ook weerspiegeld in het plafond.

Interactiviteit speelt echter op een ander niveau een echt belangrijke rol. Bullochs werken bieden de toeschouwer een scala aan interpretatiemogelijkheden op basis van kennis en eigen ervaringen. Degenen die kunsthistorisch en/of computertechnisch onderlegd zijn, zullen de tentoonstelling in De Pont dan ook ervaren als een avontuurlijke reis. Aan degenen die deze achtergrond missen, zal de kracht van Angela Bullochs kunst voorbij kunnen gaan. Natuurlijk is niet elke kunst aan een groot publiek besteed en dat hoeft ook niet. Ondanks dat, is het jammer dat in de tentoonstelling niet wat meer handvatten geboden worden om ook de welwillende bezoeker de schoonheid en intelligentie van Bullochs werken te laten ervaren.

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홍익대학교 시각디자인과

갤러리 스케이프에 갔다가 우연히 보게된 전시,

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pointlism?
divinism?
작품과 액자가 얼마나 멋지게 맞아떨어지던지..



seurat georges

(b. Dec. 2, 1859, Paris--d. March 29, 1891, Paris)
Painter, founder of the 19th-century French school of Neo-Impressionism whose technique for portraying the play of light using tiny brushstrokes of contrasting colours became known as Pointillism. Using this techique, he created huge compositions with tiny, detached strokes of pure colour too small to be distinguished when looking at the entire work but making his paintings shimmer with brilliance. Works in this style include Une Baignade (1883-84) and Un dimanche après-midi à l'Ile de la Grande Jatte (1884-86).

A French painter who was a leader in the neo-impressionist movement of the late 19th century, Georges Seurat is the ultimate example of the artist as scientist. He spent his life studying color theories and the effects of different linear structures. His 500 drawings alone establish Seurat as a great master, but he will be remembered for his technique called pointillism, or divisionism, which uses small dots or strokes of contrasting color to create subtle changes in form.

Georges-Pierre Seurat was born on Dec. 2, 1859, in Paris. He studied at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in 1878 and 1879. His teacher was a disciple of Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres. Young Seurat was strongly influenced by Rembrandt and Francisco de Goya.

After a year of military service at Brest, Seurat exhibited his drawing Aman-Jean at the official Salon in 1883. Panels from his painting Bathing at Asnieres were refused by the Salon the next year, so Seurat and several other artists founded the Societe des Artistes Independants. His famous canvas Sunday Afternoon on the Island of the Grande Jatte was the centerpiece of an exhibition in 1886. By then Seurat was spending his winters in Paris, drawing and producing one large painting each year, and his summers on France's northern coast. In his short life Seurat produced seven monumental paintings, 60 smaller ones, drawings, and sketchbooks. He kept his private life very secret, and not until his sudden death in Paris on March 29, 1891, did his friends learn of his mistress, who was the model for his painting Young Woman Holding a Powder Puff.

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Vase of Flowers

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햇살이 환한 여름에 바닷가에서 나른하게 늘어져 있는 사람들의 모습.
잔디가 바다에, 바다가 하늘에 모두 같은 느낌의 질감으로 다가온다. 또한, 인물과 배경이 하나로 스며들어 그것의 중요성이 구분되지 않는 새로운 스타일의 작품임을 알 수 있다. 이러한 병치 혼합은 점묘법이라고도 불리운다.

Une Baignade, Asnieres
1883-84 (retouched 1887); "Bathing at Asni?es"; 79 x 118 1/2 in; Signed, bottom left; National Gallery, LondonUne Baignade, Asnieres

Painted in the same year as Pissarro's The Pork Butcher, Seurat's first large picture shows in contrast the monumental sense of form which complemented the method (still in process of development) of dividing color. This was a move away from Impressionism though there is an Impressionist atmosphere in the landscape background with the river distance, the Courbevoie bridge and the smoking factory chimneys of the industrial Paris suburb of Asnières. In Impressionist fashion also he made a number of small oil sketches from which the final composition was derived. The sketches have the character that belongs to work carried out on the spot.

Asnières was to Seurat and his friend Signac what Argenteuil had been to Monet and Renoir. The Seine and its boats offered a like attraction; the bridge at Courbevoie and the island of the Grande Jatte, seen across the river from the bathing-place on the right, were also to furnish material for magnificent pictures. Une Baignade is a whole collection of Seurat's motifs---and a truly remarkable work for a young man of twenty-four. The kinship with Piero della Francesca that has often been remarked is distinct in the ordered rhythm of design and the firmly simplified contours. The feeling of repose is heightened by the lateral directions of figures, stylized shadows and river bank.

The picture was exhibited at the first Salon des Indépendants in 1884 and in 1886 was one of the `Works in Oil and Pastel by the Impressionists of Paris' exhibited by Durand-Ruel at the National Academy of Design in New York. Too original to find immediate favor either in Paris or New York, it received harsh criticism. The critic in an American paper who described Une Baignade as the product of `a vulgar, coarse and commonplace mind' seems with every epithet to present the exact opposite opinion to that with which the work is regarded now.


Planning the composition of Bathing at Asnieres, Seurat made field trips to the island of La Grande Jatte; the approximate site can be checked on any map of the Paris suburbs. But this first of his big canvases was executed in the studio, merely drawing upon the preliminary studies made outdoors.

Coming from Paris, Beaubourg wrote to Coquiot, the island was on one's right, more or less opposite the spot where people swim on Sundays, halfway between the Bineau bridge and the northern tip of the island, just where the river makes a sharp bend toward Courbevoie and Asnieres. Seurat was often to be seen painting there.

Jules Christophe left this short description of Bathing at Asnieres: Water, air, the railroad bridge in the distance, boats, shimmering trees, seven men and boys in various stages of undress, either in the water or sprawled upon the grass. Not many people saw the canvas (at the Salon des Independants it was relegated to the bar), but it represented a great deal of work.

According to Signac this large composition, for which Seurat had made so many preliminary drawings and oil studies, was painted in broad, smooth brush strokes placed atop one another, in a palette of ochres and more vivid colors. Like Delacroix, he blended his colors in individual areas. Signac goes on to sum up Seurat's method as follows: Observance of the laws of contrast, methodical separation of the elements (light, shadow, local color, reactions).

This is a hazy work, saturated with summer heat. In the distance loom factories and their smokestacks. We feel the oppressiveness of the atmosphere, the immobility of the scene. The light here weighs more heavily than the shadows. In an article, Arsene Alexandre refers to the enormous amount of work that went into this painting: Bathing at Asnieres made it clear that Seurat was the one younger artist capable of putting his back into it-one of the few capable of organizing a vast composition utilizing hitherto unknown techniques.

The many partial studies that went to produce this work have been brought together into a coherent, unified whole. The summer silence is broken only by the boy who is cupping his hands to make a sound like a boat horn. This is vacation time, rest after toil. The distribution of blacks and whites, light tones and dark, strait and curving lines (the latter predominating) is very elaborate. The light, the sun, the greenery, the buildings, the water, the people, the boats gliding along in the background- everything gives off the torpid heat of a summer afternoon.

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1884-86; "Sunday Afternoon on the Island of La Grande Jatte"; Oil on canvas, 81 x 120 in; Signed, bottom right; Art Institute of Chicago, Helen Birch Bartlett Collection

The question has been asked whether Seurat's great work should be regarded as the necessary outcome of Impressionist ideas or as deliberately anti-Impressionist, and an answer might be that it contains elements of both. In pursuing the analysis of colour, Seurat carried on, though in more systematic fashion, what Monet and Pissarro had been doing. The division of colour was scarcely new, though the primary colours were more scientifically defined by the range he based on the spectrum; but he added to this divisionism or pointillism an equally elaborate and scientifically considered treatment of line in order to attain a harmonious unity of composition, which was distinct from the Impressionist aim of suggesting light, atmosphere and movement.

The difference is more readily perceptible in a figure composition as here than in landscape. The men, women and children enjoying the sun in the public park on the island of La Grande Jatte in the Seine have the sort of fixity that a moving film acquires when it comes suddenly to a halt; they are frozen in their various attitudes. As a preliminary, Seurat made a number of oil sketches on the spot in a free and indeed Impressionist style. The finished work was intentionally different. The technique used is so interesting that it is apt to gain exclusive attention. One becomes absorbed in the geometric order that Seurat has imposed on the scene and this certainly is an opposite value to that of Impressionism. Pissarro, Signac and other artists attracted by the pointilliste method were somewhat led astray by the assumption that it opened up a new prospect solely in terms of translating light into colour. The comparison that has often been made between the Italian master of the geometrically-conceived composition, Piero della Francesca, and the Seurat of La Grande Jatte is justified in demonstrating the latter's essential direction. Absorbed though he was with theory, it would be wrong to assess Seurat as one unaware of the life around him. The statuesque figures to the right are the acme of bourgeois propriety though the lady may show pretensions to the eccentricity of `high life' by having a pet monkey on a lead. In many details it is a reality magically become unreal. A moment of charm is made lasting in the little girl running and the nearer girl bending over her bunch of flowers. The racing four that flashed across the canvases of Monet and Renoir at Argenteuil and other river craft here have the sharpness of a miniature.


To comment on this vast canvas where Seurat for the first time succeeded in applying, with scientific rigor, the theory of optical mixture by the division of tones-a technique which Rubens, Watteau, and Delacroix had employed intuitively-one cannot do better than to quote the following text by Jules Christophe. It was published in Les Hommes d'aujourd'hui, No. 368, an issue devoted to Seurat. The list of motives was dictated and revised by the artist himself:

Under a blazing midafternoon summer sky, we see the Seine flooded with sunshine, smart town houses on the opposite bank, and small steamboats, sailboats, and a skiff moving up and down the river. Under the trees closer to us many people are strolling, others are sitting or stretched out lazily on the bluish grass. A few are fishing. There are young ladies, a nursemaid, a Dantesque old grandmother under a parasol, a sprawled-out boatman smoking his pipe, the lower part of his trousers completely devoured by the implacable sunlight. A dark-colored dog of no particular breed is sniffing around, a rust-colored butterfly hovers in mid-air, a young mother is strolling with her little girl dressed in white with a salmon-colored sash, two budding young Army officers from Saint-Cyr are walking by the water. Of the young ladies, one of them is making a bouquet, another is a girl with red hair in a blue dress. We see a married couple carrying a baby, and, at the extreme right, appears a scandalously hieratic-looking couple, a young dandy with a rather excessively elegant lady on his arm who has a yellow, purple, and ultramarine monkey on a leash.

There was public resistance to the picture at first, Arsene Alexandre tells us: Everything was so new in this immense painting-the conception was bold and the technique one that nobody had never seen or heard before. This was the famous pointillism.

When exhibited at the Independants, the work aroused sneers and indignation. There were outcries, Christophe goes on to say, but by standing its ground the picture's revolutionary character won out in the end. Its success was immediately hailed in La Vogue, to which Felix Feneon contributed a lively, logical, and well-informed article.

Prior to its acquisition by the Art Institute of Chicago, the painting was owned successively by Seurat's mother, Maximillien Luce, Edmond Cousturier, and Charles Vildrac.Un dimanche après-midi à l'Ile de la Grande Jatte

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The Side Show

1888; Oil on Canvas, 39 3/4 x 59 1/8 in; Unsigned; The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York. Bequest of Stephen C. Clark, 1960

After the outdoor light of La Grande Jatte and the studio light of The Models, here is an artificial light; the gas and acetylene lamps create the mood of traveling fairs.

This work shows to what extent Seurat was concerned with construction. It is clear here how deeply Seurat had been impressed by David Sutter's observations on the architectonics of classical works of art. The canvas analyzes itself, as it were. It would be pedantic nowadays to trace the counterpoint of verticals and horizontals, clear-cut rectangles and blurred ovals, the whole broken by a few slanting lines (the branches of the tree, the ringmaster's riding crop, the railing of the staircase behind the trombone player at the center).

This is perhaps the sole work of nineteenth-century painting that unequivocally anticipates Cubism (and even Purism). It heralds the coming of a new school, which, from 1908 on, was to revolutionize form no less profoundly than Seurat revolutionized the treatment of color.

Seurat here is at his coldest and most austere. It would seem that the balance of La Grande Jatte and The Models has given way to excessive deliberateness. We may say that like certain works of Poussin, The Side Show is a painting which has been wholly thought out in advance.

The face of the ringmaster (or perhaps animal trainer), with the same haircut and mustache twisted to turn up, will reappear in Le Chahut, where the riding crop is replaced by the conductor's baton.

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Le chahut

1889-90; Oil on Canvas, 66 1/8 x 55 1/2 in; Kroller-Muller Museum, Otterlo

A frenzied gesticulation suddenly invades Seurat's art in the final two years of his life. Seurat studied and collected Jules Cheret's posters, and their compositional form is felt in Le Chahut. The curled mustache repeated in the dancer's turned-up lips, the decorations and ribbons on the dancers' shoulders and shoes, the strange similarity of male and female legs, everything here expresses the taste for peculiar detail.

This exuberance, however, does not conceal the extreme rigor of the composition. Seurat inscribes his network of diagonals on a regular geometrical background. A figure in the foreground stabilizes the composition, as one does in The Circus. Between background and foreground breaks occur. Seurat arranges in the intermediary space of Le Chahut a series of arc-shaped curves created by the dancers legs. ``Monsieur Seurat'' wrote Felix Feneon in 1889, ``knows very well that a line, independent of its representational role, has an appraisable abstract value.''

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Entrée du port de Honfleur

Painted 1886; "Entrance to the Port of Honfleur"; Oil on canvas, 54 x 65 cm (21 1/4 x 25 5/8 in); Signed, bottom left; The Barnes Foundation, Merion, PA.

After attracting both acclaim and scandal by exhibiting La Grande Jatte at the eighth and last impressionist exhibition, in May 1886, Seurat, the young newcomer to the Parisian avant-garde, left to work at a Channel port, as he did every summer during his brief career. That year he chose Honfleur, so often depicted by painters before and after him.

This busy port was also an elegant holiday resort. Seurat consistently chose to paint its somewhat desolate and deserted areas rather than its more picturesque sites. The scene is virtually uninhabited. Sailboats appear immobilized by an eternal calm, and the steamboat La Maria, coming from Folkestone at full steam in the center of the painting, seems as if it will never arrive. While the almost powdery technique of minute dots stills all movement, it also admirably transcribes the soft and lustrous northern light.

The seascapes painted by Seurat at Honfleur share a common peculiarity: in the foreground, a contrapuntal motif generally occurs-seemingly arbitrary, even ingenuous, in its compositional placement-at once realistic and foreign to the almost dreamlike setting. Here, a cruciform mooring post seems to threaten the entire scene. Elsewhere, it might be a sailboat's encroaching stem, anchors, or another, even more pivotal mooring post. The powerful, solitary presence of these signs further accentuates an impression of melancholy, transparency, and immateriality, qualities that compose that peculiar spell of seascapes by Seurat.

(b. Dec. 2, 1859, Paris--d. March 29, 1891, Paris)
Painter, founder of the 19th-century French school of Neo-Impressionism whose technique for portraying the play of light using tiny brushstrokes of contrasting colours became known as Pointillism. Using this techique, he created huge compositions with tiny, detached strokes of pure colour too small to be distinguished when looking at the entire work but making his paintings shimmer with brilliance. Works in this style include Une Baignade (1883-84) and Un dimanche après-midi à l'Ile de la Grande Jatte (1884-86).

A French painter who was a leader in the neo-impressionist movement of the late 19th century, Georges Seurat is the ultimate example of the artist as scientist. He spent his life studying color theories and the effects of different linear structures. His 500 drawings alone establish Seurat as a great master, but he will be remembered for his technique called pointillism, or divisionism, which uses small dots or strokes of contrasting color to create subtle changes in form.

Georges-Pierre Seurat was born on Dec. 2, 1859, in Paris. He studied at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in 1878 and 1879. His teacher was a disciple of Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres. Young Seurat was strongly influenced by Rembrandt and Francisco de Goya.

After a year of military service at Brest, Seurat exhibited his drawing Aman-Jean at the official Salon in 1883. Panels from his painting Bathing at Asnieres were refused by the Salon the next year, so Seurat and several other artists founded the Societe des Artistes Independants. His famous canvas Sunday Afternoon on the Island of the Grande Jatte was the centerpiece of an exhibition in 1886. By then Seurat was spending his winters in Paris, drawing and producing one large painting each year, and his summers on France's northern coast. In his short life Seurat produced seven monumental paintings, 60 smaller ones, drawings, and sketchbooks. He kept his private life very secret, and not until his sudden death in Paris on March 29, 1891, did his friends learn of his mistress, who was the model for his painting Young Woman Holding a Powder Puff.

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Le port de Gravelines

1890; Oil on canvas. 28 3/4 x 36 1/2 in; Signed, bottom right; The Indianapolis Museum of Art. Gift in memory of Daniel W. and Elizabeth C. Marmon

This is a canvas that presents in one compact vision the air of the harbor and of the sea. An impression of stability is supplied by the bollards along the sea wall casting their shadows in the direction of the channel. The rest is infinity, the infinity of a perspective in an elegant parabola, seemingly a prelude to the immensity of the sea, here perfectly calm and inducing to calm. The free, full, modulated space which cuts the painting in two gives off utter serenity: the lighthouse, the boats at anchor, and the harbor cut across by one sweeping diagonal to provide the contrasting movement.

This painting is luminous, flooded with light and sunshine, rather high in color; it contrasts with the evening effect of the channel scene in the William A. M. Burden collection. As Lucie Cousturier observed of Seurat, ``he could sit in front of any bench, tree, or wall which others had previously depicted, and his own vision would not be influenced one particle.''

The canvas was exhibited at the Exposition des XX in Brussels, and at the Independants of 1891 with The Circus. There exists one study for it on a panel which was owned by Maximillien Luce.

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The Circus

1891; Oil on canvas, 73 x 59 1/8 in; unsigned; Musee d'Orsay, Paris

This is beyond any question the most baroque work Seurat ever painted. The unfinished canvas is composed of circles, spirals, and ellipses. Exceptionally, it is built up on horizontals with the entrance to the ring at the right the only vertical break.

Seurat was fond of novels by the Goncourt brothers, and here gives us a visual counterpart to the Freres Zemgano , a tale about the circus. Lucie Cousturier wrote that the composition ``sets itself the aim of holding within one sweeping curve all the upward-running lines denoting circus fun and games.'' The movement from right to left, that of the lady bareback rider who, ``a modern goddess of grace and freedom,'' is doing acrobatics on the white horse, is counterpoised by the movement of the clown in the center with the garish wig, who arises perpendicularly from the foreground.

The figure in the first row of seats, with a silk hat and a peak of hair visible under it, is the painter Charles Angrand, a friend of Seurat's.

This work was exhibited in its unfinished state at the seventh Salon des Independants, from March 20 to April 27, 1891. Seurat died during the exhibition.

The Circus is almost a plagiarism. Robert L. Herbert-who has pointed out similarities between certain of Cheret's posters and Seurat's compositions-proves that the clown is identical (only reversed) with one in a poster by Cheret of 1880, executed for the Spectacle-Promenade de l'Horloge in the Champs-Elysees. (Cheret also was acquainted with the works of Rood and Chevreul.) As for the over-all design, Meyer Schapiro has proved that Seurat took it from an anonymous poster for the Nouveau Cirque, printed in 1888, reversing the horse and the bareback rider. But the drawing in that poster bears no comparison with Seurat's painting-it is heavy, clumsy, the horse moves sluggishly, the rider is ungraceful-whereas in Seurat everything gallops and cavorts.

The layout of this painting almost seems to have been done by some mechanical process, a tracing in blue. That we can even think this is no doubt accounted for by its unfinished state, as Feneon suggested in a letter where he gave it as his opinion that The Circus is finished only ``so far as the background is concerned (rows of spectators merely indicated in blue).''

Seurat painted the flat frame for the painting, and it bears his signiture. Signac, who was able to purchase the picture quite cheaply, noted in his diary: ``Seurat's family, though very well off, is selling everything.''







pissaro

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The Chestnut Trees at Osny  Les chataigniers a Osny
c. 1873 ; Oil on canvas, 65 x 81 cm (25 5/8 x 31 7/8");
Private collection, New Jersey

*Osny의 밤나무*
정오, 울창한 숲으로 어우러진 깊은 산속에서 하늘을 향해 누워 본 적이 있다면 느낄 수 있는 나무내음과 초록빛 잎들 사이로 내리쬐는 보석같은 햇빛들.
지금 이 작품은 여름에서 마악 가을로 접어들어 8월의 한낮처럼 뜨거운 기운과 9월의 숲내음이 드러나는 어느 오후이지 않나싶다.
하늘을 가릴듯 커다란 밤나무들이 보여지며 그 가운데 밤을 줍는 아낙네의 모습에서 알 수 있듯이 관객 또한 풍요로운 수확의 기쁨을 맛볼 수 있는 풍성한 그림이다.


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 The Orchard
Le verger 1872 ; Oil on linen, 45.1 x 54.9 cm (17 3/4 x 21 5/8");
National Gallery of Art, Washington

*과수원*
인상주의 작가들은 빛을 쫓아 야외로 이젤을 옮겨 풍경화를 그리기 시작했다. 그리고는 시간이 흘러 빛이 사라질 쯤에 집으로 들어와 그 그림을 마무리하곤 하였다.
화창한 봄날, 한가로운 오후, 꽃이 활짝 피어있는 과실나무를 가꾸는 어느 부부의 바쁜 손놀림을
관객은 마치 버스를 타고 시골길을 지나면서 보는 풍경인 듯한 착각을 불러일으키게 된다. 그러므로 느껴지는 여유로운 상상이 그야말로 한 폭의 그림같은 작품이다.
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signac

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The Dining Room
Oil on white primed canvas ,89 x 115 cm (35 x 45 1/4 in)

*거실*
시냑의 작품은 신인상주의의 대표로 불리는 쇠라의 기법과 같은 분할주의 기법을 사용하였다. 시냑의 작품을 자세히 관찰해보면 그 속에서 독특한 마띠에르를 찾을 수 있다. 그리고 그 마띠에르는 마치 돌표면처럼 보이는 거친 느낌이 든다.
그 이유는 쇠라의 것이 본래의 색에 주변색을 넣어 스며드는 느낌이라면 시냑은 모든 본래의 색에 하얀색을 넣어 거친 돌표면을 연상시키지 않나 싶다.
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sisly
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Posted by @artnstory Art&Story

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  1. A 2014.04.09 17:28 Address Modify/Delete Reply

    아르니에르의 물놀이
    철교 공장이 보이는 파리근교 공업지역 아니에르 , 고급리조트 향하는 부르주아 요트
    진보적 정치사상과 사실주의 화풍
    평범한 노동자가 시대의 진정한 주인공이라는 사회적 메시지. 살롱
    평범한현실이 비현실적인 세계처럼 모든것이 멈춰버린 듯한 정지 화면.
    완벽한 삼각형구도 고요함 적막함.
    구도-수평구도. 잔잔한 운동감.
    색채- 빛이 전체에 비치는 점묘주의
    맑디맑은 서정성.


Auguste Rodin

History of Arts/19C 2007. 11. 13. 18:05 |
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Posted by @artnstory Art&Story

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  1. a 2009.11.23 01:15 Address Modify/Delete Reply

    까미유 끌로델

19C- 상징주의

History of Arts/19C 2007. 11. 12. 17:10 |
Rousseau, Henri

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The Sleeping Gypsy, 1897
 (70 Kb); Oil on canvas, 129.5 x 200.7 cm (51" x 6'7"); The Museum of Modern Art, New York




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Timeline: Art of the Fantastic


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Rousseau, Henri, known as Le Douanier Rousseau (1844-1910). French painter, the most celebrated of na?e artists.

His nickname refers to the job he held with the Paris Customs Office (1871-93), although he never actually rose to the rank of `Douanier' (Customs Officer). Before this he had served in the army, and he later claimed to have seen service in Mexico, but this story seems to be a product of his imagination. He took up painting as a hobby and accepted early retirement in 1893 so he could devote himself to art.

His character was extraordinarily ingenuous and he suffered much ridicule (although he sometimes interpreted sarcastic remarks literally and took them as praise) as well as enduring great poverty. However, his faith in his own abilities never wavered. He tried to paint in the academic manner of such traditionalist artists as Bouguereau and G??e, but it was the innocence and charm of his work that won him the admiration of the avant-garde: in 1908 Picasso gave a banquet, half serious half burlesque, in his honor. Rousseau is now best known for his jungle scenes, the first of which is Surprised! (Tropical Storm with a Tiger) (National Gallery, London, 1891) and the last The Dream (MOMA, New York, 1910). These two paintings are works of great imaginative power, in which he showed his extraordinary ability to retain the utter freshness of his vision even when working on a large scale and with loving attention to detail. He claimed such scenes were inspired by his experiences in Mexico, but in fact his sources were illustrated books and visits to the zoo and botanical gardens in Paris.

His other work ranges from the jaunty humor of The Football Players (Philadelphia Museum of Art, 1908) to the mesmeric, eerie beauty of The Sleeping Gypsy (MOMA, 1897). Rousseau was buried in a pauper's grave, but his greatness began to be widely acknowledged soon after his death.

Art of the Fantastic
One artist who prefigured the Surrealists' idea of fantasy with his fresh, na?e outlook on the world was the Frenchman, Henri Rousseau (1844-1910). Like Paul Klee, he defies all labels, and although he has been numbered among the Na?es or Primitives (two terms for untrained artists), he transcends this grouping. Known as Le Douanier, after a lifelong job in the Parisian customs office, Rousseau is a perfect example of the kind of artist in whom the Surrealists believed: the untaught genius whose eye could see much further than that of the trained artist.

Rousseau was an artist from an earlier era: he died in 1910, long before the Surrealist painters championed his art. Pablo Picasso, half-ironically, brought Rousseau to the attention of the art world with a dinner in his honor in 1908: an attention to which Rousseau thought himself fully entitled. Although Rousseau's greatest wish was to paint in an academic style, and he believed that the pictures he painted were absolutely real and convincing, the art world loved his intense stylization, direct vision, and fantastical images.

Such total confidence in himself as an artist enabled Rousseau to take ordinary book and catalogue illustrations and turn each one into a piece of genuine art: his jungle paintings, for instance, were not the product of any first-hand experience and his major source for the exotic plant life that filled these strange canvases was actually the tropical plant house in Paris.

Despite some glaring disproportions, exaggerations, and banalities, Rousseau's paintings have a mysterious poetry. Boy on the Rocks (1995-97; 55 x 46 cm (21 3/4 x 18 in)) is both funny and alarming. The rocks seem to be like a series of mountain peaks and the child effortlessly dwarves them. His wonderfully stripy garments, his peculiar mask of a face, the uncertainty as to whether he is seated on the peaks or standing above them, all comes across with a sort of dreamlike force. Only a child can so bestride the world with such ease, and only a childlike artist with a simple, na?e vision can understand this elevation and make us see it as dauntingly true.


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독일의 화가로 다양한 영역을 넘나들며 작품활동을 해왔다. 게르하르트 리히터는 일반적으로 알고 있는 회화와 재현의 개념에 의문을 갖고, 사진처럼 보이는 그림을 그렸다. 그의 그림은 색채가 다양한 추상적인 작업에서부터 회색 색조의 매우 현실적인 묘사까지 광범위하다.
드레스덴 미술학교와 뒤셀도르프 미술학교에서 공부했으며, 1950년대 동안 사진작가와 무대 미술가로 일한 것을 포함해 여러 가지 일을 했다.
초기에는 앙포르멜 추상표현주의 미술에 영향을 받았고, 1962년부터 사진에서 나온 이미지를 그린 ‘사진-회화’를 제작하기 시작했다. 1960년대 후반부터 리히터는 추상미술의 극히 개인적인 형태로 돌아갔다.
그는 전후 시대에 지적 엄격함과 화가로서의 솜씨가 결합돼, 세련되고 혁신적인 작품활동을 해온 대표적인 작가이다. 세계 유수의 미술관에서 전시회가 열렸으며, 1996년 베니스 비엔날레에서 황금사자상을 수상했다.
2002년 10월 12일부터 2003년 1월 14일까지 샌프란시스코 현대미술관(SF MOMA)에서 열리고 있는 ‘게르하르트 리히터:회화 40년(Gerhard Richter:Forty Years of Painting)’ 전시회에는 1962년부터 현재까지 제작된 회화 140점이 전시되고 있다. 추상회화와 풍경, 초상, 사진에 바탕을 둔 회화 등 새로운 표현 방식을 끊임없이 개척해온 그의 다양한 작업영역이 소개되고 있다.
대표작은 ‘독자(Reader)’ ‘베티’ 등이 있다.

 


독일 출생의 추상화가 게르하르트 리히터(Gerhard RICHTER, 1932- )의 회고전으로 회화를 비롯한 유리 조각, 사진, 판화 등 작품 100여 점이 공개된다. 작가와의 공동참여로 진행된 이 전시는 개념적이고 역사적 사실에 근거한 구상작품과 사물에 대한 그의 끊임없는 고찰을 작품을 통해 엿볼 수 있다는 점이 눈길을 끈다. <비르케나우(Birkenau)>(2014) 시리즈는 4점으로 구성된 대형 유화작품으로 1944년 나치 수용소 아우슈비츠-비르케나우에 갇힌 유대인 수감자가 가스 방에서 타들어 가는 사진을 보고 그 이미지를 여러 겹 겹쳐 어두운 컬러로 표현한 뒤 표면을 긁어내어 추상화로 승화시켰다. 
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Hide and Seek

History of Arts/19C 2007. 10. 17. 11:38 |

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Tissot James

Hide and Seek
 c. 1877 ; Oil on wood, 73.4 x 53.9 cm (28 7/8 x 21 1/4 in); National Gallery of Art, Washington
Several children are playing a game of hide and seek in the home and studio of the French painter James Jacques Joseph Tissot (pronounced
JAHM ZHOCK JO-SEF TEE-SO).

"READY OR NOT...HERE I COME," shouts the child whose turn it is to look. Ooops! One girl has just peeked from her hiding spot. How many children do you see hiding? Let's take a closer look. (Just click the picture and a larger version will pop up in a separate window.) When you've finished looking at the painting, close that window and click the forward arrow at the top or bottom of this page to continue.

 * 숨바꼭질 *
이 작품을 커튼을 중심으로 세로로 반으로 나누어 살펴보자.
우측에 바이올렛 드레스를 입고 신문을 읽고 있는 여인은 이 소란에 무관심한 듯 보이며 이 화면의 우측 무게 중심을 잡아준다. 반면, 좌측에는 병풍뒤의 한 소녀와 소파사이의 두소녀가 얼굴만 내민 채 숨어 있고, 전면에 빛을 받아 더 화사한 금발곱슬 머리 소녀가 하얀원피스에 다홍색 리본을 어깨 허리에 두르고 곧 찾아 나설 기세로 몸을 일으키고 있다. 앞에 공은 숨바꼭질하는 어린 소녀들의 놀이와 귀여움을 상징하는 것도 같다. 전체적으로 고급스런 인테리어를 한 어두운 부위기의 이 거실 우측에 자리잡은 전면 유리가 열리면서 파티오의 나무들과 햇살로 이 작품의 명도 중심 균형을 잡아 주고 있다.

Do you think the child in the white dress is a boy or a girl? We're still not positive, but based on the date of the painting and details we know about the artist's family life, we believe that the child on the floor is the artist's daughter. For many years people thought she was Tissot's young son! Back then young boys and girls often wore the same frilly clothing, so it was kind of hard to tell. The children who are hiding may be her cousins, who lived next-door, or playmates. Mom is shown at the far right, reading.


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James Jacques Joseph Tissot
(French, 1836 - 1902)

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http://www.artcyclopedia.com/artists/botero_fernando.html

유머와 풍자, 위트를 그리는 작가 보테로 BOTERO FERNANDO 1932~ 콜롬비아의 화가, 조각가

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뚱뚱힌 나라~
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